Indiana provides an expansive educational landscape for learners seeking brick-and-mortar or online Christian colleges. Data from the Pew Research Center found that 72% of the state's adult population considered themselves to be Christian, with 31% identifying as Evangelicals, followed by mainline Catholics (18%) and Protestants (16%). Information from the same study shows that 37% of adult residents attend a religious service at least once a week, while an additional 32% attend at least a few times per year.
72% of the state's adult population considered themselves to be Christian, with 31% identifying as Evangelicals, followed by mainline Catholics (18%) and Protestants (16%) Pew Research Center
A total of 23 Christian colleges can be found in Indiana, with a mix of Bible colleges, Christian colleges, and ministry-preparation schools such as the Christian Theological Seminary in Indianapolis. A number of secular public and private colleges with Christian student organizations and ministries also operate in the state. Christian higher education options exist from the associate to the doctoral levels, ensuring that students at all academic levels can access Christ-centered curricula. Indiana Christian colleges meet the needs of students who want to be surrounded by like-minded peers and professors and take part in faith-based programs.
Online Christian Colleges in Indiana
Online Christian colleges in Indiana offer numerous benefits to attendees from both religious and academic standpoints. The most appealing factor of online programs for many students is the increased flexibility. Because distance learning rarely requires a participant to visit campus, degree seekers can work from their homes without worrying about commuting to and from campus. This style of learning also makes it possible to save money related to on-campus room and board. Additionally, faculty often deliver coursework in an asynchronous format, allowing online students to turn in assignments and complete readings at their convenience.
Christian online colleges in Indiana prioritize faith-based learning, no matter the discipline area. Students taking online coursework complete the same general education requirements as their on-campus peers. Additionally, online learners need not worry about missing out on faith-filled extracurriculars; schools have begun to make these available online. No matter their location, distance learners at many schools can now take advantage of virtual counseling and spiritual support or tune into campus-based chapel services without leaving their homes.
Indiana's Best Online Christian Schools
University of Notre Dame
A private Catholic research university, the University of Notre Dame sprawls across more than 1,200 acres outside of South Bend. The suburban campus is home to several landmarks, including the Golden Dome, the Basilica, and Notre Dame Stadium. ND was founded by Edward Soren in 1842 and consistently ranks as one of the top higher learning institutions in the country.
Students at ND enjoy a variety of program offerings, including the following online certificate opportunities:
Online programs at ND offer students high-quality business education in a flexible format. Students can watch prerecorded and real-time online class lectures. Learners interact with classmates and instructors through chat rooms, virtual office hours, and discussion boards.
Applicants to ND have different admissions requirements depending on their desired program. All applicants must complete an admissions application, pay their associated application fee, and submit any transcripts. Online students benefit from the same resources as on-campus students, including libraries, career services, counseling services, tutoring, the writing center, and clubs and organizations.
The University of Notre Dame is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Goshen College is a private liberal arts college in Goshen, Indiana. In 1894, GC was founded as the Elkhart Institute of Science, Industry, and the Arts. Affiliated with the Mennonite Church USA, GC consistently ranks as one of the best colleges in the Midwest. Students can explore 41 majors and 47 minors in undergraduate study, along with several graduate opportunities across disciplines.
GC also offers online opportunities, including:
The RN-to-BSN program at GC features an entirely online format, allowing students to take advantage of the asynchronous delivery and complete their work on their own schedules. Students enrolled in the collaborative MBA option complete their coursework online and participate in several brief residency requirements. Students interested in the doctor of nursing practice program complete their coursework online after an initial residency at the beginning of their program.
Undergraduate applicants must complete their admissions application, pay the $25 application fee, submit a personal essay, and provide their high school transcripts and ACT/SAT scores. Graduate applicants have different admissions requirements depending on the program they choose to enroll in, but all graduate applicants must submit their official college transcripts from their undergraduate education and complete an admissions application.
Goshen College is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Founded in 1846, Taylor University is one of the oldest evangelical Christian colleges in the United States. Students enjoy access to 90 undergraduate programs and several master's opportunities.
The school also offers the following online opportunities:
Online programs at TU follow a unique program structure, with courses taken through traditional 15-week semesters or flexible four-month terms. Students taking advantage of financial aid participate in the semester-based classes, whereas those not accepting financial aid can pursue the four-month term and choose their course start date. Most of the students at TU enroll part-time, completing two to three classes at a time. Students complete all of their coursework online. Online learners must follow weekly assignment due dates, but do not need to meet online at specific times.
Online courses are taught through an independent study format, allowing students to work one-on-one with their instructors. TU features asynchronous delivery, allowing students to complete their work at any time of day and from any location. TU uses the Blackboard learning management system.
Taylor University holds regional accreditation from the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
University of Evansville
Located in Evansville, Indiana, the University of Evansville is a private university that provides students with liberal arts and science degrees. More than 80% of students study abroad at Harlaxton College, UE's England campus.
The university features more than 80 areas of study across disciplines, with the following options available online:
Students use Blackboard as their online learning platform and can find resources on UE's website to help them troubleshoot any issues they encounter. Additionally, students can complete an online readiness self-assessment on the program website, allowing them to determine whether online programs are right for them before they enroll. Students can also review the online course development process, online learning infographics, student support services information, and online teaching resources.
Online programs at UE are offered as adult degree programs, providing convenient and flexible opportunities for older students to return to college and advance their education. Students can apply to UE by completing an admissions application, providing their college or high school transcripts, and meeting other program-specific admissions requirements.
The University of Evansville is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Valparaiso University is a four-year Lutheran university boasting a diverse student body from more than 50 countries. Valpo features five undergraduate colleges, a law school, and a graduate school. The campus also hosts the second-largest collegiate chapel in the world — the Chapel of the Resurrection.
Students enjoy a large scope of study areas, including the following rigorous online options:
In addition to Valpo's fully online formats, students can also explore the following hybrid opportunities:
Valpo also offers over 150 online courses each year. Advisors are available to answer questions regarding admissions requirements, the enrollment process, and graduation requirements. All applicants must complete an admissions application and provide official transcripts from high school or college, depending on their degree level.
Valparaiso University is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Huntington University in Huntington, Indiana, is a private Christian university affiliated with the Church of the United Brethren in Christ. Part of the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities, HU features more than 80 undergraduate programs, several graduate opportunities, and online program opportunities.
Students can choose from the following online options:
HU's online adult degree programs allow students who want to go back to college the chance to earn their degree while still maintaining a full-time job, family commitments, and other time obligations. Online programs feature five-week course formats and are centered around Christian principles, with instructors integrating Christian faith into class lessons.
HU allows students to earn credits for work experience and Prior Learning Assessment, reducing the overall program cost for many students. Applicants must complete an admissions application and satisfy two years of college preparatory mathematics. During high school, applicants must have completed four years of English, three years of social studies, and two years of science. Students must provide their transcripts and ACT or SAT test scores.
Huntington University is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
One of the top Christian colleges in Indiana, Bethel University is a liberal arts university that hosts students from 48 Christian denominations. Founded in 1947 and located in Mishawaka, Bethel offers undergraduate, adult degree, and graduate programs across a variety of disciplines.
Students can pursue 30 completely online options, including the following:
In addition to the completely online programs, the university features several online programs with in-person intensives, including options in marital and family therapy, children's and family ministry, theological studies, and transformational leadership. Intensives require students to come to campus to satisfy certain requirements, while the rest of the coursework is completed online.
Bethel University is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College
Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College is the oldest Catholic college in the state. The school focuses on a traditional liberal arts education, requiring all students to complete a general studies curriculum on top of their majors and minors. SMWC belongs to the College Consortium of Western Indiana, which allows full-time students to take one class at other member institutions with no additional tuition.
Among SMWC's programs, students can pursue the following online options:
Most online programs offer asynchronous delivery, allowing students to complete their work on their own schedule, from any location. Students engage in virtual classroom discussions, complete their assignments online, and can watch prerecorded lectures. SMWC provides students the opportunity to learn from expert instructors with experience in their respective fields, granting students the same quality education online as on campus.
Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Indiana Wesleyan University
Formerly known as Marion College, Indiana Wesleyan University is a private evangelical Christian liberal arts university located in Marion. IWU is the largest institution belonging to the Council for Chrisitan Colleges and Universities, and is also the largest private university in Indiana.
Students can pursue a variety of liberal arts degrees, as well as professional education programs at the associate, bachelor's, and master's levels. IWU also offers a plethora of online opportunities: 30 certificate programs, 11 associate programs, 21 bachelor's programs, 35 master's programs, and 7 doctorates.
IWU boasts a wide variety of online business offerings, including:
The university also features areas of study in:
Applicants must hold a minimum 2.6 GPA and submit ACT/SAT scores. Depending on their degree level or particular program of interest, students need to meet different admissions requirements before enrolling in their program. Students can also explore opportunities to study abroad and benefit from travel classes, long-term experiences, global service learning teams, and trips with the School of Nursing.
Indiana Wesleyan University is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Grace College and Seminary
Known as one of the best Christian colleges in Indiana, Grace College and Seminary is an evangelical Christian college located in Winona Lake. Grace operates five schools: the School of Arts and Science, the School of Business, the School of Ministry Studies, the School of Behavioral Sciences, and the School of Ministry Studies. Grace maintains an affiliation with the Fellowship of Grace Brethren Churches, and the student body hosts diverse denominations.
Students can explore a variety of programs at the college, including the following online options:
Online programs at Grace provide students with a flexible education from a biblical standpoint. Applicants need to adhere to different admissions requirements depending on their desired program. In general, applicants need to complete an online admissions application, submit a transcript request, and potentially interview with representatives of the college. Once accepted, students must complete a credit agreement form.
Grace College and Seminary is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Oakland City University
Oakland City University is the only college or university in the United States affiliated with the General Baptist Church. OCU was founded in 1885 and has steadily grown since. In addition to the main campus in Oakland City, the university features satellite campuses in Indianapolis, Rockport, Evansville, and Bedford.
Students can explore a variety of programs at the university, including these online options:
OCU accepts up to double the amount of transfer credits accepted at other universities, along with prior experience assessments to lower the total program cost for students. Online students enjoy a five-week class rotation and a format flexible enough to continue working their full-time job as they earn their degree. OCU boasts a low student-to-faculty ratio of 12-to-1, with 91% of courses featuring less than 20 students.
Oakland City University is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Marian University is a private, nonprofit, Roman Catholic university located in Indianapolis. The school was founded by the Sisters of St. Francis in 1851 in Oldenburg, Indiana, and moved to Indianapolis in 1937. In 2013, Marian opened the first osteopathic medical school in Indiana, making it the second operational medical school in the state and the only new medical school in Indiana in 110 years.
Students can explore a variety of degree opportunities, including the following online offerings:
Business administration students can make the most of their degree by pursuing a concentration in the following areas: human resource management, project management, and management.
Online programs at Marian are delivered completely online and follow an accelerated pace. Students enjoy the opportunity to earn their degree more quickly than they would in a traditional associate or bachelor's program.
Applicants to the health and human services, business administration, or paralegal studies programs must complete an admissions application and provide all high school and college transcripts. Students must demonstrate one of these three options: a minimum 2.0 GPA from the last college they attended, a 2.3 high school GPA, or a minimum score of 51 on the GED. RN-to-BSN applicants must hold an associate degree in nursing from an ACEN-accredited program, an active RN license, and a 2.5 minimum GPA.
Marian University is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
University of Saint Francis-Fort Wayne
Located in Fort Wayne, the University of Saint Francis maintains an affiliation with the Roman Catholic Church and promotes both Franciscan and Catholic values. USF's student body comes largely from Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, and Michigan. Students enjoy a plethora of academic options, including flexible online programs.
Some online offerings are listed below:
Online opportunities at USF recognize that many students lead busy lives that require flexible learning formats. In addition to the convenience provided by online learning, distance learners also benefit from the Franciscan values present throughout the curriculum. Students also learn from instructors who are experts in their field.
USF's online campus allows students to connect with their classmates and instructors via discussion boards, a live virtual classroom, a course chat, and instant messaging groups. Students engage with coursework through instructor video recordings, written readings and lectures, and PowerPoint presentations with audio.
The University of Saint Francis is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Consistently ranking as one of the top Christian colleges in Indiana, Anderson University is a private Christian liberal arts university affiliated with the Church of God. The university belongs to the Council for Christian College and Universities, as well as the Independent Colleges of Indiana Society.
AU offers over 60 undergraduate programs and a variety of graduate programs, including two online options:
AU's online MBA program emphasizes practical business applications while simultaneously focusing on broad-based management. During the first year of the program, students learn how to understand and integrate the basic principles of business. In the second year of their program, students focus on understanding the strategies involved with long-term goals for an organization. The online MBA program caters to working students, cultivating a flexible and convenient learning environment.
Online MBA students at AU must complete an online introductory course to prepare them for online learning. While the on-campus MBA follows a cohort format, the online program does not. Throughout their curriculum, students complete modules, watch videos, and participate in online discussion boards.
Students enrolled in the online MA in Christian ministry develop a solid foundation in theological disciplines relevant to professional ministry. Students enjoy a flexible, entirely online format, and can complete the program in three years.
Anderson University is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Located in Jeffersonville, Ottawa University allows students to take advantage of classes on campus and online. Online programs cater to students with full-time jobs and busy schedules. OU presents courses in eight-week formats, and students can earn college credits for work and life experience, previous college credits, credits by examination, national registry and certification, and military service. Students can explore 19 online bachelor's degrees and eight online master's degrees.
Bachelor's programs encompass a variety of subject areas, including:
Students can also explore an online accounting dual program, earning their bachelor's and master's in accounting simultaneously.
Master's programs include:
Online programs are designed to provide busy students with the flexibility they need to earn their degree while they continue working and meeting other commitments. OU boasts affordable tuition and accommodating program formats. Online students enjoy access to a 24/7 help desk, granting them constant access to student services and troubleshooting.
Ottawa University is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Indiana's Best Online Seminaries
Bethany Theological Seminary
The official seminary of the Church of the Brethren, Bethany Theological Seminary in Richmond was founded in 1905 by E.B. Hoff and A.C. Wieand. Bethany moved from Oak Brook to Richmond in 1994 when it partnered with the Earlham School of Religion, a Christian theological school in the Quaker tradition.
Students can pursue a variety of online programs, such as the ones listed below:
Bethany prides itself on its Connections programs, the institution's distance learning options. Interested online students can complete four of the required 24 courses for M.Div. programs and six of the required 18 for MA programs on campus. The remaining courses must be taken online or at the extension site in Pennsylvania.
Bethany Theological Seminary is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
Saint Meinrad Seminary and School of Theology
A Roman Catholic seminary, Saint Meinrad Seminary and School of Theology boasts an affiliation with the Saint Meinrad Archabbey. The institution features programs in Roman Catholic priesthood formation, along with continuing education and youth leadership initiatives.
Students who desire more flexibility within their program can consider two online options:
Saint Meinrad features a variety of online courses and room for students to enroll in independent studies. Students must complete at least 25% of their required credits on campus through intensive, weekend, or weekday courses. Students can therefore complete up to 75% of their degree through other formats, including independent studies, online courses, and transfer credits from another accredited college or university.
Saint Meinrad welcomes students and faculty across Christian denominations. Many students at the school live more than three hours away from the campus and subsequently enroll part-time and/or participate in weekend courses consisting of three all-day Saturday and Sunday weekends of coursework. These course meetings happen once a month for three months.
Saint Meinrad Seminary and School of Theology is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).
What Christian Colleges are in Indiana?
Finding the Right Christian College
Since all Christian colleges in Indiana exist as private institutions, they tend to be more expensive than public, in-state universities. Due to this increased cost, Christian students should be extra careful about investigating a school's offerings before making a final decision.
Campus size is a critical decision for many learners; the number of students and faculty at an institution greatly impact the overall experience. For example, smaller campuses tend to offer a more intimate community and a lower student-to-faculty ratio, making it easier to connect with professors and peers.
Many Christian colleges in Indiana have stricter lifestyle expectations more attuned to biblical principles than secular institutions.
Values espoused by a school should also be considered. Many Christian colleges in Indiana have stricter lifestyle expectations more attuned to biblical principles than secular institutions. Examples of these may include curfews, gender-separated dormitories, rules about when members of the opposite sex can spend time together, and strict no-tolerance policies about drugs, alcohol, and smoking. Many Indiana Christian colleges also require learners to attend a specific number of chapel services each semester. Another important consideration is the location of a school. Students who plan to study on campus should consider how safe the surrounding area feels and whether or not local opportunities exist for volunteerism.
From an academic standpoint, a school should have suitable program offerings. Does the curriculum emphasize more of a liberal arts core or is it more biblically based? Do faculty design coursework to prepare graduates to enter the ministry or assume general workforce jobs? Online students also need to understand the resources available to them. While distance learning programs increasingly offer easy access to academic resources, this is not always a given. Speak to an admissions counselor to find out if a school offers online students the chance to join student organizations, sign up for tutoring, access library materials, and/or receive disability support.
Seminary Schools vs. Bible Schools
When researching Christian colleges in Indiana, students frequently come across schools labeling themselves as seminaries or Bible schools. Confusion exists between these terms, and some students think both provide similar offerings. However, these types of institutions differ dramatically; students should understand these differences before selecting a program.
Bible schools typically offer two- and four-year degree programs. Many of the available majors focus on Christian topics, such as biblical history, Christian ethics, and church history, but some schools also provide additional traditional majors, such as business administration, mathematics, and social work. Conversely, seminaries offer coursework that is exclusively devoted to graduate education related to Christian topics. Schools such as the Christian Theological Seminary in Indianapolis provide master's and doctoral degrees that prepare graduates for ministry roles. Examples of available majors include Christian ministry, theological studies, and marriage and family therapy.
Accreditation for Christian Colleges
Accreditation refers to the process a school goes through to have its programs and services reviewed, ensuring that it provides a quality education. Accreditation is vitally important; students who attend unaccredited or poorly accredited schools may find it difficult to secure financial aid, transfer to a different school, or find a job.
Three main types of accreditation exist for Christian online colleges: regional, national, and specialized. Regional accreditation ranks highest in terms of credibility, due to the rigorous standards employed. The U.S. Department of Education provides a database of accredited postsecondary institutions and programs that all prospective students should review.
Numerous accrediting agencies under the specialized accreditation umbrella also exist for Christian colleges in Indiana. Some of these organizations include the Commission on Accreditation of the Association for Biblical Higher Education, the Association of Christian Schools International, Christian Schools International, and the American Association of Christian Schools. A number of denomination-specific accreditation agencies also exist, such as the Accrediting Association of Seventh-Day Adventist Schools, Colleges, and Universities.
Career and Salary Expectations
According to the Indiana Business Research Center, the state ranks favorably in terms of growth and stability. Economists project the state's economy to grow by 2.0-2.8% in 2018, with Indiana ranking 15th in the nation in terms of its gross domestic product. In March 2018, the unemployment in the state was just 3.2%, well below the national average (4.1%).
Workers in the state receive an hourly mean wage of $21.13, while the annual mean salary currently sits at $43,950
Workers in the state receive an hourly mean wage of $21.13, while the annual mean salary currently sits at $43,950. Individuals with postsecondary degrees typically earn more than the state average, meaning graduates from one of Indiana's online Christian colleges have the potential to take home larger paychecks. Indiana industries projected to perform well in the near future include auto and light truck manufacturing, machine manufacturing, and computer/electronics manufacturing.
Many Christian students go on to work in rolls that benefit the community, and many of these positions exist in Indiana. The following table shows some of the most promising community- and social service-related positions in the state, as well as their accompanying compensation.
|Occupation||Employment||Average Hourly Wage||Average Annual Wage|
|Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors||900||$18.17||$37,800|
|Marriage and Family Therapists||620||$23.40||$48,670|
|Mental Health Counselors||2,210||$20.12||$41,840|
|Child, Family, and School Social Workers||6,100||$18.72||$38,940|
|Healthcare Social Workers||4,470||$23.12||$48,080|
|Social and Human Service Assistants||6,480||$14.19||$29,510|
|Directors, Religious Activities and Education||240||$26.48||$55,090|
|Religious Workers, All Other||130||$17.91||$37,250|
Scholarships and Financial Aid
Many Christian colleges in Indiana come with an expensive price tag; however, several regional, national, and religious scholarships exist to help offset the costs of a higher education. Additionally, many of these awards specifically target Christian students.
J.J. O'Daniel Memorial Scholarship $1,000
Sheaves for Christ Scholarship $1,500
Clare Booth Luce Scholarships Varies
Make a Difference Scholarship $2,500
Indiana United Methodist Church Scholarship Varies
Scholarships for Indiana Residents
Mitch Daniels Early Graduation Scholarship $4,000
William A. Crawford Minority Teacher Scholarship $1,000
Indiana Quarter Horse Youth Scholarship $1,500
Next Generation Hoosier Educators Scholarship $7,500
Find a Church in Your Community
One of the first things newly enrolled students at Indiana Christian colleges do is find a local church that meets their spiritual and social needs. Rather than visiting dozens of churches before finding the right fit, students can use Church Finder or USA Churches to locate churches of a specific denomination and a place of worship one near campus.
Similar to the many industry-specific professional organizations that exist to help individuals find networking opportunities and job openings, Christian networking sites help connect believers.
- Christian Business Network This international group of Christian professionals allows members to connect with fellow believers across the globe and leverage their skills and talents into successful careers.
- Christian Women Business Organization In addition to receiving support from the national organization, CWBO members benefit from local chapters offering business building, networking, mentoring, prayer partners, and web advertising.
- Christian Network Groups CNG is an ever-expanding group of local networking pods scattered throughout the U.S. that work to build up and support Christian business professionals and share helpful resources.
Find Christian Ministries
Because many Indiana Christian colleges require a substantial financial commitment, not all students can afford to attend a Christian school. Fortunately, Christian ministries also exist at secular public and private colleges throughout Indiana. The list below contains a few of the many Christian groups in the state found on secular campuses.
- Campus Crusade for Christ CCC maintains hundreds of college campus chapters throughout the U.S. to provide a community where students seeking God can come together in an attempt to find answers.
- Chi Alpha This group of campus chapters works to provide a space where lehttps://chialpha.com/arners can engage in fellowship, worship, and pray together as disciples of Christ.
- International Fellowship of Evangelical Students Specifically designed for evangelical students, IFES operates on campuses throughout the U.S. and abroad.
- Fellowship of Christian Athletes With nearly 18,000 campus groups throughout the U.S. and internationally, FCA serves more than 113,000 student athletes in 62 countries, helping individuals grow in their faith and athleticism.
- Catholic Campus Ministry Association Aside from providing campus-based ministry programs, CCMA hosts a blog, podcast, webinars, and an annual convention designed to bring students together from across the country.
- Lutheran Student Movement U.S.A. LSM-USA operates throughout the United States, providing individualized campus ministries, alternative spring breaks, service-learning opportunities, and an annual national gathering.
- Reformed University Fellowship RUF is a popular campus program that brings young Christians together for fellowship, ministry, and worship. Students can access a full list of active locations on RUF's website.
- UKirk Operating as an affiliate of the Presbyterian Church, UKirk offers campus ministries in 37 states and Puerto Rico, including four ministries in Indiana.
- Baptist Collegiate Ministry Life Aside from campus-based ministry, BCM Life works to plant churches, provide discipleship opportunities, encourage mission trips, and host local and national events.
Public Universities in Indiana with Christian Ministries
- Indiana State University's Chi Alpha Chapter: In addition to holding a weekly large group meeting, several life groups and Bible study groups meet throughout the week. The group also has an active Facebook page.
- Indiana University's RUF Chapter: Students at IU can take part in weekly guys' and girls' Bible studies, social gatherings, and opportunities to receive ministry and mentoring from RUF staff.
- Ball State's Campus Crusade for Christ: The CRU chapter at Ball State offers community groups, weekly meetings and Bible studies, and a number of social events throughout the semester.